Pickles

Pickling is the process of preserving or extending the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar. In East Asiavinaigrette (vegetable oil and vinegar) is also used as a pickling medium.[1] The pickling procedure typically affects the food’s texture, taste and flavor. The resulting food is called a pickle, or, to prevent ambiguity, prefaced with pickled. Foods that are pickled include vegetables, fruits, meats, fish and egg.

A distinguishing characteristic is a pH of 4.6 or lower,[2] which is sufficient to kill most bacteria. Pickling can preserve perishablefoods for months. Antimicrobial herbs and spices, such as mustard seedgarliccinnamon or cloves, are often added.[3] If the food contains sufficient moisture, a pickling brine may be produced simply by adding dry salt. For example, sauerkraut and Korean kimchi are produced by salting the vegetables to draw out excess water. Natural fermentation at room temperature, by lactic acid bacteria, produces the required acidity. Other pickles are made by placing vegetables in vinegar. Like the canningprocess, pickling (which includes fermentation) does not require that the food be completely sterile before it is sealed. The acidity or salinity of the solution, the temperature of fermentation, and the exclusion of oxygen determine which microorganisms dominate, and determine the flavor of the end products.

History[edit]

The exact origins of pickling are unknown, but it may have begun in the area of Mohenjo Daro, in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent, about 2400 B.C.[5] Pickling was used as a way to preserve food for out-of-season use and for long journeys, especially by sea. Salt pork and salt beef were common staples for sailors before the days of steam engines. Although the process was invented to preserve foods, pickles are also made and eaten because people enjoy the resulting flavors. Pickling may also improve the nutritional value of food by introducing B vitamins produced by bacteria.[6]

Etymology[edit]

The term pickle is derived from the Dutch word pekel, meaning brine. In the U.S. and Canada, and sometimes Australia and New Zealand, the word pickle alone almost always refers to a pickled cucumber, except when it is used figuratively. It may also refer to other types of pickles such as “pickled onion”, “pickled cauliflower”, etc. In the UK, pickle, as in a “cheese and pickle sandwich“, may also refer to Ploughman’s pickle, a kind of chutney.

Popularity of pickles around the world[edit]

Asia[edit]

South Asia[edit]

South Asia has a large variety of pickles (known as achar (आचार) in Assamese, Bengali, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu uppinakaayi in Kannada, lonacha (लोणचं) in Marathi, uppilittathu or achar in Malayalamoorukai in Tamil, ooragaya in Telugu), which are mainly made from varieties of mango, lemonlime, goongura (a sour leafy shrub), tamarind and Indian gooseberry (amla), chilli. Vegetables such as eggplant, carrots, cauliflower, tomato, bitter gourd, green tamarind, ginger, garlic, onion, and citron are also occasionally used. These fruits and vegetables are generally mixed with ingredients like salt, spices, and vegetable oils and are set to mature in a moistureless medium.

In Pakistan, pickles are known locally as achaar (in Urdu اچار) and come in a variety of flavors. A popular item is the traditional mixed Hyderabadi pickle, a common delicacy prepared from an assortment of fruits (most notably mangoes) and vegetables blended with selected spices. Although the origin of the word is ambiguous, the word āchār is widely considered to be of Persian origin. Āchār in Persian is defined as ‘powdered or salted meats, pickles, or fruits, preserved in salt, vinegar, honey, or syrup.’[7]

In Sri Lankaachcharu is traditionally prepared from carrots, onions, and ground dates that are mixed with mustard powder, ground pepper, crushed ginger, garlic, and vinegar, and left to sit in a clay pot.

Southeast Asia[edit]

SingaporeIndonesian and Malaysian pickles, called acar, are typically made out of cucumber, carrot, bird’s eye chilies, and shallots, these items being seasoned with vinegar, sugar and salt. Fruits, such as papaya and pineapple, are also sometimes pickled.

In the Philippinespickling was traditionally done in earthen jars and is widely known as buro or binuro. Pickling was a common method of preserving food throughout the archipelago before the advent of refrigeration, but its popularity is now confined to vegetables and fruits. Achara remains popular as the Philippine localization of the Malay acar, and is primarily made out of green papaya, carrots, and shallots, seasoned with cloves of garlic and vinegar; but could include ginger, bell peppers, white radishes, cucumbers or bamboo shoots. Pickled unripe mangoes or burong mangga, unripe tomatoes, guavasjicama, bitter gourd and other fruit and vegetables still retain their appeal. Siling labuyo, sometimes with garlic and red onions, is also pickled in bottled vinegar and is a staple condiment in Filipino cuisine.

Dưa cải muối made from cải bẹ xanh

In Vietnamese cuisine, vegetable pickles are called dưa muối (“salted vegetables”) or dưa chua (“sour vegetables”). Dưa chuaor dưa góp is made from a variety of fruits and vegetables, including cà pháoeggplantNapa cabbagekohlrabicarrots, radishes, papayacauliflower, and sungDưa chua made from carrots and radishes are commonly added to bánh mìsandwiches. Dưa cải muối is made by pressing and sun-drying vegetables such as cải bẹ xanh and bok choyNhút mít is a specialty of Nghệ An and Hã Tĩnh provinces made from jackfruit.

In Burma, tea leaves are pickled to produce lahpet, which has strong social and cultural importance.

Kimchi is a very common side dish in Korea.

East Asia[edit]

China is home to a huge variety of pickled vegetables, including radishbaicai (Chinese cabbage, notably suan caila bai caipao cai, and Tianjin preserved vegetable), zha caichili pepper, and cucumbers, among many others.

Japanese tsukemono (pickled foods) include takuan (daikon), umeboshi (ume plum), gari & beni shōga (ginger), turnipcucumber, and Chinese cabbage.

The Korean staple kimchi is usually made from pickled napa cabbage and radish, but is also made from green onions, garlic stems, chives and a host of other vegetables. Kimchi is popular throughout East Asia. Jangajji is another example of pickled vegetables.

Western Asia[edit]

Torshi, traditional pickles in Southeast EuropeTurkey and the Caucasus

Kosher sauerkraut in Israel

In IranTurkeyArab countries, the Balkans, and the Caucasus, pickles (called torshi in Persianturşu in Turkish language and mekhallel in Arabic) are commonly made from turnips, peppers, carrots, green olives, cucumbers, cabbage, green tomatoes, lemons, and cauliflower.

Sauerkraut, as well as cabbage pickled in vinegar, with carrot and other vegetables is commonly consumed as a kosher dish in Israel and is considered pareve, meaning that it contains no meat or dairy so it can be consumed with either.[8]

Europe[edit]

Central and Eastern Europe[edit]

Coriander seeds are one of the spices popularly added to pickled vegetables in Europe.

In Hungary the main meal (lunch) usually goes with some kind of pickles (savanyúság) but they are commonly consumed at other times of the day too. The most commonly consumed pickles are sauerkraut (savanyú káposzta), the different kinds of pickled cucumbers and peppers and csalamádé but tomatoes, carrots, beetroot, baby corn, onions, garlic, certain squashes and melons and a few fruits like plums and apples are used to make pickles too. Stuffed pickles are specialties usually made of peppers or melons pickled after being stuffed with a cabbage filling. Pickled plum stuffed with garlic is a unique Hungarian type of pickle just like csalamádé and leavened cucumber (kovászos uborka)Csalamádé a type of mixed pickle made of cabbage, cucumber, paprika, onion, carrot, tomatoes and bay leaf mixed up with vinegar as the fermenting agent. Leavened cucumber, unlike other types of pickled cucumbers that are around all year long, is rather a seasonal pickle produced in the summer. Cucumbers, spices, herbs and slices of bread are put in a glass jar with salt water and kept in direct sunlight for a few days. The yeast from the bread, along with other pickling agents and spices fermented under the hot sun, give the cucumbers a unique flavor, texture and slight carbonation. Its juice can be used to make a special type of spritzer (‘Újházy fröccs’) instead of carbonated water. It is common for Hungarian households to produce their own pickles. Different regions or towns have their special recipes unique to them. Among them all the Vecsési sauerkraut (Vecsési savanyú káposzta) is the most famous.

The exact origins of pickling are unknown, but it may have begun in the area of Mohenjo Daro, in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent, about 2400 B.C.[5] Pickling was used as a way to preserve food for out-of-season use and for long journeys, especially by sea. Salt pork and salt beef were common staples for sailors before the days of steam engines. Although the process was invented to preserve foods, pickles are also made and eaten because people enjoy the resulting flavors. Pickling may also improve the nutritional value of food by introducing B vitamins produced by bacteria.[6]

Etymology[edit]

The term pickle is derived from the Dutch word pekel, meaning brine. In the U.S. and Canada, and sometimes Australia and New Zealand, the word pickle alone almost always refers to a pickled cucumber, except when it is used figuratively. It may also refer to other types of pickles such as “pickled onion”, “pickled cauliflower”, etc. In the UK, pickle, as in a “cheese and pickle sandwich“, may also refer to Ploughman’s pickle, a kind of chutney.

Popularity of pickles around the world[edit]

Asia[edit]

South Asia[edit]

South Asia has a large variety of pickles (known as achar (आचार) in Assamese, Bengali, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu uppinakaayi in Kannada, lonacha (लोणचं) in Marathi, uppilittathu or achar in Malayalamoorukai in Tamil, ooragaya in Telugu), which are mainly made from varieties of mango, lemonlime, goongura (a sour leafy shrub), tamarind and Indian gooseberry (amla), chilli. Vegetables such as eggplant, carrots, cauliflower, tomato, bitter gourd, green tamarind, ginger, garlic, onion, and citron are also occasionally used. These fruits and vegetables are generally mixed with ingredients like salt, spices, and vegetable oils and are set to mature in a moistureless medium.

In Pakistan, pickles are known locally as achaar (in Urdu اچار) and come in a variety of flavors. A popular item is the traditional mixed Hyderabadi pickle, a common delicacy prepared from an assortment of fruits (most notably mangoes) and vegetables blended with selected spices. Although the origin of the word is ambiguous, the word āchār is widely considered to be of Persian origin. Āchār in Persian is defined as ‘powdered or salted meats, pickles, or fruits, preserved in salt, vinegar, honey, or syrup.’[7]

In Sri Lankaachcharu is traditionally prepared from carrots, onions, and ground dates that are mixed with mustard powder, ground pepper, crushed ginger, garlic, and vinegar, and left to sit in a clay pot.

Southeast Asia[edit]

SingaporeIndonesian and Malaysian pickles, called acar, are typically made out of cucumber, carrot, bird’s eye chilies, and shallots, these items being seasoned with vinegar, sugar and salt. Fruits, such as papaya and pineapple, are also sometimes pickled.

In the Philippinespickling was traditionally done in earthen jars and is widely known as buro or binuro. Pickling was a common method of preserving food throughout the archipelago before the advent of refrigeration, but its popularity is now confined to vegetables and fruits. Achara remains popular as the Philippine localization of the Malay acar, and is primarily made out of green papaya, carrots, and shallots, seasoned with cloves of garlic and vinegar; but could include ginger, bell peppers, white radishes, cucumbers or bamboo shoots. Pickled unripe mangoes or burong mangga, unripe tomatoes, guavasjicama, bitter gourd and other fruit and vegetables still retain their appeal. Siling labuyo, sometimes with garlic and red onions, is also pickled in bottled vinegar and is a staple condiment in Filipino cuisine.

Dưa cải muối made from cải bẹ xanh

In Vietnamese cuisine, vegetable pickles are called dưa muối (“salted vegetables”) or dưa chua (“sour vegetables”). Dưa chuaor dưa góp is made from a variety of fruits and vegetables, including cà pháoeggplantNapa cabbagekohlrabicarrots, radishes, papayacauliflower, and sungDưa chua made from carrots and radishes are commonly added to bánh mìsandwiches. Dưa cải muối is made by pressing and sun-drying vegetables such as cải bẹ xanh and bok choyNhút mít is a specialty of Nghệ An and Hã Tĩnh provinces made from jackfruit.

In Burma, tea leaves are pickled to produce lahpet, which has strong social and cultural importance.

Kimchi is a very common side dish in Korea.

East Asia[edit]

China is home to a huge variety of pickled vegetables, including radishbaicai (Chinese cabbage, notably suan caila bai caipao cai, and Tianjin preserved vegetable), zha caichili pepper, and cucumbers, among many others.

Japanese tsukemono (pickled foods) include takuan (daikon), umeboshi (ume plum), gari & beni shōga (ginger), turnipcucumber, and Chinese cabbage.

The Korean staple kimchi is usually made from pickled napa cabbage and radish, but is also made from green onions, garlic stems, chives and a host of other vegetables. Kimchi is popular throughout East Asia. Jangajji is another example of pickled vegetables.

Western Asia[edit]

Torshi, traditional pickles in Southeast EuropeTurkey and the Caucasus

Kosher sauerkraut in Israel

In IranTurkeyArab countries, the Balkans, and the Caucasus, pickles (called torshi in Persianturşu in Turkish language and mekhallel in Arabic) are commonly made from turnips, peppers, carrots, green olives, cucumbers, cabbage, green tomatoes, lemons, and cauliflower.

Sauerkraut, as well as cabbage pickled in vinegar, with carrot and other vegetables is commonly consumed as a kosher dish in Israel and is considered pareve, meaning that it contains no meat or dairy so it can be consumed with either.[8]

Europe[edit]

Central and Eastern Europe[edit]

Coriander seeds are one of the spices popularly added to pickled vegetables in Europe.

In Hungary the main meal (lunch) usually goes with some kind of pickles (savanyúság) but they are commonly consumed at other times of the day too. The most commonly consumed pickles are sauerkraut (savanyú káposzta), the different kinds of pickled cucumbers and peppers and csalamádé but tomatoes, carrots, beetroot, baby corn, onions, garlic, certain squashes and melons and a few fruits like plums and apples are used to make pickles too. Stuffed pickles are specialties usually made of peppers or melons pickled after being stuffed with a cabbage filling. Pickled plum stuffed with garlic is a unique Hungarian type of pickle just like csalamádé and leavened cucumber (kovászos uborka)Csalamádé a type of mixed pickle made of cabbage, cucumber, paprika, onion, carrot, tomatoes and bay leaf mixed up with vinegar as the fermenting agent. Leavened cucumber, unlike other types of pickled cucumbers that are around all year long, is rather a seasonal pickle produced in the summer. Cucumbers, spices, herbs and slices of bread are put in a glass jar with salt water and kept in direct sunlight for a few days. The yeast from the bread, along with other pickling agents and spices fermented under the hot sun, give the cucumbers a unique flavor, texture and slight carbonation. Its juice can be used to make a special type of spritzer (‘Újházy fröccs’) instead of carbonated water. It is common for Hungarian households to produce their own pickles. Different regions or towns have their special recipes unique to them. Among them all the Vecsési sauerkraut (Vecsési savanyú káposzta) is the most famous.

History[edit]

The exact origins of pickling are unknown, but it may have begun in the area of Mohenjo Daro, in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent, about 2400 B.C.[5] Pickling was used as a way to preserve food for out-of-season use and for long journeys, especially by sea. Salt pork and salt beef were common staples for sailors before the days of steam engines. Although the process was invented to preserve foods, pickles are also made and eaten because people enjoy the resulting flavors. Pickling may also improve the nutritional value of food by introducing B vitamins produced by bacteria.[6]

Etymology[edit]

The term pickle is derived from the Dutch word pekel, meaning brine. In the U.S. and Canada, and sometimes Australia and New Zealand, the word pickle alone almost always refers to a pickled cucumber, except when it is used figuratively. It may also refer to other types of pickles such as “pickled onion”, “pickled cauliflower”, etc. In the UK, pickle, as in a “cheese and pickle sandwich“, may also refer to Ploughman’s pickle, a kind of chutney.

Popularity of pickles around the world[edit]

Asia[edit]

South Asia[edit]

South Asia has a large variety of pickles (known as achar (आचार) in Assamese, Bengali, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu uppinakaayi in Kannada, lonacha (लोणचं) in Marathi, uppilittathu or achar in Malayalamoorukai in Tamil, ooragaya in Telugu), which are mainly made from varieties of mango, lemonlime, goongura (a sour leafy shrub), tamarind and Indian gooseberry (amla), chilli. Vegetables such as eggplant, carrots, cauliflower, tomato, bitter gourd, green tamarind, ginger, garlic, onion, and citron are also occasionally used. These fruits and vegetables are generally mixed with ingredients like salt, spices, and vegetable oils and are set to mature in a moistureless medium.

In Pakistan, pickles are known locally as achaar (in Urdu اچار) and come in a variety of flavors. A popular item is the traditional mixed Hyderabadi pickle, a common delicacy prepared from an assortment of fruits (most notably mangoes) and vegetables blended with selected spices. Although the origin of the word is ambiguous, the word āchār is widely considered to be of Persian origin. Āchār in Persian is defined as ‘powdered or salted meats, pickles, or fruits, preserved in salt, vinegar, honey, or syrup.’[7]

In Sri Lankaachcharu is traditionally prepared from carrots, onions, and ground dates that are mixed with mustard powder, ground pepper, crushed ginger, garlic, and vinegar, and left to sit in a clay pot.

Southeast Asia[edit]

SingaporeIndonesian and Malaysian pickles, called acar, are typically made out of cucumber, carrot, bird’s eye chilies, and shallots, these items being seasoned with vinegar, sugar and salt. Fruits, such as papaya and pineapple, are also sometimes pickled.

In the Philippinespickling was traditionally done in earthen jars and is widely known as buro or binuro. Pickling was a common method of preserving food throughout the archipelago before the advent of refrigeration, but its popularity is now confined to vegetables and fruits. Achara remains popular as the Philippine localization of the Malay acar, and is primarily made out of green papaya, carrots, and shallots, seasoned with cloves of garlic and vinegar; but could include ginger, bell peppers, white radishes, cucumbers or bamboo shoots. Pickled unripe mangoes or burong mangga, unripe tomatoes, guavasjicama, bitter gourd and other fruit and vegetables still retain their appeal. Siling labuyo, sometimes with garlic and red onions, is also pickled in bottled vinegar and is a staple condiment in Filipino cuisine.

Dưa cải muối made from cải bẹ xanh

In Vietnamese cuisine, vegetable pickles are called dưa muối (“salted vegetables”) or dưa chua (“sour vegetables”). Dưa chuaor dưa góp is made from a variety of fruits and vegetables, including cà pháoeggplantNapa cabbagekohlrabicarrots, radishes, papayacauliflower, and sungDưa chua made from carrots and radishes are commonly added to bánh mìsandwiches. Dưa cải muối is made by pressing and sun-drying vegetables such as cải bẹ xanh and bok choyNhút mít is a specialty of Nghệ An and Hã Tĩnh provinces made from jackfruit.

In Burma, tea leaves are pickled to produce lahpet, which has strong social and cultural importance.

Kimchi is a very common side dish in Korea.

East Asia[edit]

China is home to a huge variety of pickled vegetables, including radishbaicai (Chinese cabbage, notably suan caila bai caipao cai, and Tianjin preserved vegetable), zha caichili pepper, and cucumbers, among many others.

Japanese tsukemono (pickled foods) include takuan (daikon), umeboshi (ume plum), gari & beni shōga (ginger), turnipcucumber, and Chinese cabbage.

The Korean staple kimchi is usually made from pickled napa cabbage and radish, but is also made from green onions, garlic stems, chives and a host of other vegetables. Kimchi is popular throughout East Asia. Jangajji is another example of pickled vegetables.

Western Asia[edit]

Torshi, traditional pickles in Southeast EuropeTurkey and the Caucasus

Kosher sauerkraut in Israel

In IranTurkeyArab countries, the Balkans, and the Caucasus, pickles (called torshi in Persianturşu in Turkish language and mekhallel in Arabic) are commonly made from turnips, peppers, carrots, green olives, cucumbers, cabbage, green tomatoes, lemons, and cauliflower.

Sauerkraut, as well as cabbage pickled in vinegar, with carrot and other vegetables is commonly consumed as a kosher dish in Israel and is considered pareve, meaning that it contains no meat or dairy so it can be consumed with either.[8]

Europe[edit]

Central and Eastern Europe[edit]

Coriander seeds are one of the spices popularly added to pickled vegetables in Europe.

In Hungary the main meal (lunch) usually goes with some kind of pickles (savanyúság) but they are commonly consumed at other times of the day too. The most commonly consumed pickles are sauerkraut (savanyú káposzta), the different kinds of pickled cucumbers and peppers and csalamádé but tomatoes, carrots, beetroot, baby corn, onions, garlic, certain squashes and melons and a few fruits like plums and apples are used to make pickles too. Stuffed pickles are specialties usually made of peppers or melons pickled after being stuffed with a cabbage filling. Pickled plum stuffed with garlic is a unique Hungarian type of pickle just like csalamádé and leavened cucumber (kovászos uborka)Csalamádé a type of mixed pickle made of cabbage, cucumber, paprika, onion, carrot, tomatoes and b

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